Widerstand Wikipedia Inhaltsverzeichnis
Widerstand steht für: Widerstand (Psychotherapie), Ablehnung oder Abwehrhaltung; Widerstand (Politik), Gehorsamsverweigerung und Opposition gegen die. Kategorie:Elektrischer Widerstand. aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Hier sind alle Artikel aufgeführt die im. Die Helden des Alltags, Das tägliche Überleben im antifaschistischen Widerstand Christa Muths oxway.coKriegsbeuteEbenda,1. Anm. oxway.co (vom , ). Anm. oxway.co (vom , ). Widerstandsmaterial. Als häufigste Bauform dürfte heutzutage die integrierte Schaltung gelten. Sie wird gerne vergessen, da hier der Widerstand.
Widerstandsmaterial. Als häufigste Bauform dürfte heutzutage die integrierte Schaltung gelten. Sie wird gerne vergessen, da hier der Widerstand. Ausstellung Widerstand und Verfolgung - Bezirksmuseum Liesing, Widerstandskämpferinnen und Widerstandskämpfer im Wien Geschichte Wiki. Varistoren (VDR); Heißleiter (NTC); Kaltleiter (PTC); Lichtabhängiger Widerstand (LDR) Wikipedia hat einen Artikel zum Thema: Potentiometer.
Eine spezielle Bauform ist die Mäanderform. Zu finden ist diese Form bei Leistungs- und Hochleistungs-Widerständen.
Auch die Fertigung auf Biege- oder Fräsmaschinen ist relativ einfach. Diese werden durch Löten direkt mit einer Platine verbunden Oberflächenmontage.
Die verschiedenen Materialien der Widerstandsschichten werden nach der gewünschten Genauigkeit Toleranz und der Temperaturstabilität ausgewählt.
Kohleschichten haben einen negativen Temperaturkoeffizienten und sind sehr ungenau. Metallschichtwiderstände lassen sich mit höchsten Genauigkeiten und abhängig von der Legierung mit sehr geringen Temperaturkoeffizienten fertigen.
Metalle haben im Allgemeinen einen positiven Temperaturkoeffizienten. Metallschichtwiderstände werden auch als Sicherungswiderstände gefertigt — diese verursachen bei Überlastung eine sichere Unterbrechung des Stromflusses.
Für sehr hohe Widerstandswerte und hohe Spannungen werden Metalloxid-Schichtwiderstände gefertigt. Diese sind besonders stabil gegenüber den bei hohen Spannungen auftretenden Migrationsprozessen.
Sehr kleine, hoch belastbare Widerstände z. Shunts und Bremswiderstände für hohe Energieabsorption werden aus Metallfolie Manganin gefertigt.
Elektrische Widerstände gibt es als elektronische Bauelemente in verschiedenen Ausführungen, die sich zum Beispiel in der Art und Form des Widerstandsmaterials unterscheiden:.
In einer monolithischen integrierten Schaltung Basismaterial einkristallines Silizium ist die Wahl der Widerstands-Materialien sehr eingeschränkt.
Sollen reale Widerstände in der Schaltung benötigt werden, verwendet man meist polymorphes Silizium. Festwiderstände sind Ohmsche Widerstände mit festem, d.
Sie sind bestimmt durch:. Die Nennwiderstände sind abgestuft nach bestimmten Normzahlreihen. Eine solche Abstufung ist aus wirtschaftlichen Gründen erforderlich.
Man kann Festwiderstände nicht mit jedem beliebigen Widerstandswert herstellen. Benötigt man einen ganz bestimmten Widerstandswert, der in der Normreihe nicht enthalten ist, so kann man einen einstellbaren Widerstand verwenden und diesen auf den gewünschten Wert einstellen.
Die Nennwerte von Widerständen werden nach geometrischen Folgen abgestuft. Die Prozent-Zahlen geben Mindestgenauigkeiten für die jeweilige Reihe an.
Die Werte sind so gewählt, dass sich überlappende Toleranzbereiche ergeben. Als Nebeneffekt wird eine minimale Anzahl von Lagerwerten erzielt.
E12 hat beispielsweise zwölf Widerstände, deren Abstand geometrisch fast gleich verteilt ist. Früher war lediglich die EReihe üblich, heutzutage jedoch gibt es genauere und stabilere Widerstände.
Durch die aufeinander abgestimmte Kombination von E-Reihe und Toleranzbereich gibt es für jeden beliebigen Widerstandswert einen zugehörigen Nennwert, so dass man im Prinzip mit einem streuenden Herstellungsprozess beliebige Widerstandswerte produzieren könnte, die im Anschluss durch Selektion genauer toleriert werden könnten.
Dies ist jedoch unerwünscht, da die benötigten Stückzahlen auch benachbarter Werte sehr unterschiedlich sind. Bei der Leiterplattenbestückung werden bedrahtete Widerstände in der Industrie kaum noch eingesetzt.
In the s and s, the main Christian opposition to Nazism had come from the Catholic Church. Vice Chancellor Franz von Papen , the leader of the Catholic right-wing, meanwhile negotiated a Reich concordat with the Holy See, which prohibited clergy from participating in politics.
Most Catholic opposition to the regime came from the Catholic left-wing in the Christian trade unions, such as by the union leaders Jakob Kaiser and Nikolaus Gross.
Hoffmann writes that, from the beginning: . Over the years until the outbreak of war Catholic resistance stiffened until finally its most eminent spokesman was the Pope himself with his encyclial Mit brennender Sorge In general terms, therefore, the churches were the only major organisations to offer comparatively early and open resistance: they remained so in later years.
In the year following Hitler's "seizure of power", old political players looked for means to overthrow the new government.
Hitler decided to strike at his chief political opponents in the Night of the Long Knives. The purge lasted two days over 30 June and 1 July High-profile Catholic resistors were targeted - Klausener and Jung were murdered.
The offices of President and Chancellor were combined, and Hitler ordered the Army to swear an oath directly to him.
Hitler declared his "revolution" complete. Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber gained an early reputation as a critic of the Nazis. He was part of the five-member commission that prepared the Mit brennender Sorge anti-Nazi encyclical of March , and sought to block the Nazi closure of Catholic schools and arrests of church officials.
While Hitler did not feel powerful enough to arrest senior clergy before the end of the war, an estimated one third of German priests faced some form of reprisal from the Nazi Government and German priests were sent to the dedicated Priest Barracks of Dachau Concentration Camp alone.
Arrested in , he died en route to Dachau Concentration Camp in She organized aid circles for Jews, assisted many to escape.
Even at the height of Hitler's popularity, one issue unexpectedly provoked powerful and successful resistance to his regime. By , more than 70, people had been killed under this programme, many by gassing, and their bodies incinerated.
This policy aroused strong opposition across German society, and especially among Catholics. Opposition to the policy sharpened after the German attack on the Soviet Union in June , because the war in the east produced for the first time large-scale German casualties, and the hospitals and asylums began to fill up with maimed and disabled young German soldiers.
Catholic anger was further fuelled by actions of the Gauleiter of Upper Bavaria , Adolf Wagner , a militantly anti-Catholic Nazi, who in June ordered the removal of crucifixes from all schools in his Gau.
This attack on Catholicism provoked the first public demonstrations against government policy since the Nazis had come to power, and the mass signing of petitions, including by Catholic soldiers serving at the front.
When Hitler heard of this he ordered Wagner to rescind his decree, but the damage had been done — German Catholics had learned that the regime could be successfully opposed.
On 3 August, Galen was even more outspoken, broadening his attack to include the Nazi persecution of religious orders and the closing of Catholic institutions.
Local Nazis asked for Galen to be arrested, but Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels told Hitler that if this happened there would be an open revolt in Westphalia.
Galen's sermons went further than defending the church, he spoke of a moral danger to Germany from the regime's violations of basic human rights: "the right to life, to inviolability, and to freedom is an indispensable part of any moral social order", he said - and any government that punishes without court proceedings "undermines its own authority and respect for its sovereignty within the conscience of its citizens".
By August, the protests had spread to Bavaria. Hitler was jeered by an angry crowd at Hof , near Nuremberg — the only time he was opposed to his face in public during his 12 years of rule.
It needs to be remembered that following the annexations of Austria and the Sudetenland , nearly half of all Germans were Catholic. On 24 August he ordered the cancellation of the T4 programme and issued strict instructions to the Gauleiters that there were to be no further provocations of the churches during the war.
Although remaining publicly neutral, Pius advised the British in of the readiness of certain German generals to overthrow Hitler if they could be assured of an honourable peace, offered assistance to the German resistance in the event of a coup and warned the Allies of the planned German invasion of the Low Countries in He stated his "profound grief" at the murder of the deformed, the insane, and those suffering from hereditary disease The Encyclical was followed, on 26 September , by an open condemnation by the German Bishops which, from every German pulpit, denounced the killing of "innocent and defenceless mentally handicapped, incurably infirm and fatally wounded, innocent hostages, and disarmed prisoners of war and criminal offenders, people of a foreign race or descent".
However, the deportation of Polish and Dutch priests by the occupying Nazis by — after Polish resistance acts and the Dutch Catholic bishops' conference's official condemnation of anti-Semitic persecutions and deportations of Jews by the Nazis — also terrified ethnic German clergy in Germany itself, some of whom would come to share the same fate because of their resistance against the Nazi government in racial and social aspects, among them Fr.
Bernhard Lichtenberg. Himmler's Aktion Klostersturm Operation Attack-the-Monastery had also helped to spread fear among regime-critical Catholic clergy.
Following the Nazi takeover, Hitler attempted the subjugation of the Protestant churches under a single Reich Church.
He divided the Lutheran Church Germany's main Protestant denomination and instigated a brutal persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses , who refused military service and allegiance to Hitlerism.
The movement grew into the Confessing Church , from which some clergymen opposed the Nazi regime.
We see our nation threatened with mortal danger; the danger lies in a new religion. The Church has been ordered by its Master to see that Christ is honoured by our nation in a manner befitting the Judge of the world.
The Church knows that it will be called to account if the German nation turns its back on Christ without being forewarned".
In May , the Confessing Church sent Hitler a memorandum courteously objecting to the "anti-Christian" tendencies of his regime, condemning anti-Semitism and asking for an end to interference in church affairs.
Hundreds of pastors were arrested; Dr Weissler, a signatory to the memorandum, was killed at Sachsenhausen concentration camp and the funds of the church were confiscated and collections forbidden.
The Confessing Church was banned on 1 July Niemöller was arrested by the Gestapo , and sent to the concentration camps.
He remained mainly at Dachau until the fall of the regime. Theological universities were closed, and other pastors and theologians arrested.
Dietrich Bonhoeffer , another leading spokesman for the Confessing Church, was from the outset a critic of the Hitler regime's racism and became active in the German Resistance — calling for Christians to speak out against Nazi atrocities.
Arrested in , he was implicated in the July Plot to assassinate Hitler and executed. Despite the removal of Blomberg and Fritsch, the army retained considerable independence, and senior officers were able to discuss their political views in private fairly freely.
The Army Chief of Staff, General Ludwig Beck , regarded this as not only immoral but reckless, since he believed that Germany would lose such a war.
Oster and Beck sent emissaries to Paris and London to advise the British and French to resist Hitler's demands, and thereby strengthen the hand of Hitler's opponents in the Army.
Weizsäcker also sent private messages to London urging resistance. The British and French were extremely doubtful of the ability of the German opposition to overthrow the Nazi regime and ignored these messages.
An official of the British Foreign Office wrote on August 28, "We have had similar visits from other emissaries of the Reichsheer , such as Dr.
Goerdeler, but those for whom these emissaries claim to speak have never given us any reasons to suppose that they would be able or willing to take action such as would lead to the overthrow of the regime.
The events of June and February do not lead one to attach much hope to energetic action by the Army against the regime"  Because of the failure of Germans to overthrow their Führer in , the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was convinced that the resistance comprised a group of people seemingly not well organized.
This group was not committed to the overthrow of the regime but was loosely allied to another, more radical group, the "anti-Nazi" fraction centered on Colonel Hans Oster and Hans Bernd Gisevius , which wanted to use the crisis as an excuse for executing a putsch to overthrow the Nazi regime.
The group wanted to avoid a major war and the potential catastrophic consequences for Germany. Their goal wasn't to get rid of the dictator but, as they saw it, to bring him to his senses.
In August, Beck spoke openly at a meeting of army generals in Berlin about his opposition to a war with the western powers over Czechoslovakia.
When Hitler was informed of this, he demanded and received Beck's resignation. Beck was highly respected in the army and his removal shocked the officer corps.
His successor as chief of staff, Franz Halder , remained in touch with him, and was also in touch with Oster. Privately, he said that he considered Hitler "the incarnation of evil".
Oster, Gisevius, and Schacht urged Halder and Beck to stage an immediate coup against Hitler, but the army officers argued that they could only mobilize support among the officer corps for such a step if Hitler made overt moves towards war.
Halder nevertheless asked Oster to draw up plans for a coup. Weizsäcker and Canaris were made aware of these plans.
The conspirators disagreed on what to do about Hitler if there was a successful army coup — eventually most overcame their scruples and agreed that he must be killed so that army officers would be free from their oath of loyalty.
They agreed Halder would instigate the coup when Hitler committed an overt step towards war. During the planning for the putsch , Carl Friedrich Goerdeler was in contact through the intermediary of General Alexander von Falkenhausen with Chinese intelligence  Most German conservatives favoured Germany's traditional informal alliance with China, and were strongly opposed to the about-face in Germany's Far Eastern policies effected in early by Joachim von Ribbentrop , who abandoned the alliance with China for an alignment with Japan.
Remarkably, the army commander, General Walther von Brauchitsch , was well aware of the coup preparations. He told Halder he could not condone such an act, but he did not inform Hitler, to whom he was outwardly subservient, of what he knew.
This threw the conspirators into uncertainty. When, on 20 September, it appeared that the negotiations had broken down and that Chamberlain would resist Hitler's demands, the coup preparations were revived and finalised.
All that was required was the signal from Halder. On 28 September, however Chamberlain agreed to a meeting in Munich , at which he accepted the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia.
This plunged the resistance into demoralisation and division. Halder said he would no longer support a coup.
The other conspirators were bitterly critical of Chamberlain, but were powerless to act. This was the nearest approach to a successful conspiracy against Hitler before the plot of 20 July In December , Goerdeler visited Britain to seek support.
As war again grew more likely in mid, the plans for a pre-emptive coup were revived. Oster was still in contact with Halder and Witzleben, although Witzleben had been transferred to Frankfurt am Main , reducing his ability to lead a coup attempt.
At a meeting with Goerdeler, Witzleben agreed to form a network of army commanders willing to take part to prevent a war against the western powers.
But support in the officer corps for a coup had dropped sharply since Most officers, particularly those from Prussian landowning backgrounds , were strongly anti-Polish.
That business must be cleared up" Emphasis in the original  The German historian Andreas Hillgruber commented that in the rampant anti-Polish feelings in the German Army officer corps served to bind the military together with Hitler in supporting Fall Weiss in a way that Fall Grün did not.
This nevertheless marked an important turning point. In , the plan had been for the army, led by Halder and if possible Brauchitsch, to depose Hitler.
This was now impossible, and a conspiratorial organisation was to be formed in the army and civil service instead.
The plan was again to stage a coup at the moment Hitler moved to declare war. However, although Britain and France were now prepared to go to war over Poland, as war approached, Halder lost his nerve.
Schacht, Gisevius and Canaris developed a plan to confront Brauchitsch and Halder and demand that they depose Hitler and prevent war, but nothing came of this.
When Hitler invaded Poland on 1 September, the conspirators were unable to act. The outbreak of war made the further mobilization of resistance in the army more difficult.
Halder continued to vacillate. In late and early he opposed Hitler's plans to attack France, and kept in touch with the opposition through General Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel , an active oppositionist.
Talk of a coup again began to circulate, and for the first time the idea of killing Hitler with a bomb was taken up by the more determined members of the resistance circles, such as Oster and Erich Kordt, who declared himself willing to do the deed.
At the army headquarters at Zossen , south of Berlin, a group of officers called Action Group Zossen was also planning a coup. When in November it seemed that Hitler was about to order an immediate attack in the west, the conspirators persuaded General Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb , commander of Army Group C on the Belgian border, to support a planned coup if Hitler gave such an order.
At the same time Oster warned the Dutch and the Belgians that Hitler was about to attack them — his warnings were not believed.
But when Hitler postponed the attack until , the conspiracy again lost momentum, and Halder formed the view that the German people would not accept a coup.
Again, the chance was lost. With Poland overrun but France and the Low Countries yet to be attacked, the German Resistance sought the Pope's assistance in preparations for a coup to oust Hitler.
The Vatican considered Müller to be a representative of Colonel-General von Beck and agreed to offer the machinery for mediation.
The British agreed to negotiate, provided the Vatican could vouch for the opposition's representative. Pius, communicating with Britain's Francis d'Arcy Osborne , channelled communications back and forth in secrecy.
If this could be assured, then they were willing to move to replace Hitler. The British government had doubts as to the capacity of the conspirators.
On 7 February, the Pope updated Osbourne that the opposition wanted to replace the Nazi regime with a democratic federation, but hoped to retain Austria and the Sudetenland.
The British government was non-committal, and said that while the federal model was of interest, the promises and sources of the opposition were too vague.
Nevertheless, the resistance were encouraged by the talks, and Muller told his contact that a coup would occur in February. Pius appeared to continue to hope for a coup in Germany into March Following the Fall of France, peace overtures continued to emanate from the Vatican as well as Sweden and the United States, to which Churchill responded resolutely that Germany would first have to free its conquered territories.
Hitler's swift victories over France and the Low Countries deflated the will of the German military to resist Hitler.
Muller was arrested during the Nazis first raid on Military Intelligence in He spent the rest of the war in concentration camps, ending up at Dachau.
The failed plots of and showed both the strength and weakness of the officer corps as potential leaders of a resistance movement.
Its strength was its loyalty and solidarity. As Istvan Deak noted: "Officers, especially of the highest ranks, had been discussing, some as early as Yet it seems that not a single one was betrayed by a comrade-in-arms to the Gestapo.
One explanation is that at this time Himmler was still preoccupied with the traditional enemies of the Nazis, the SPD and the KPD and, of course, the Jews , and did not suspect that the real centre of opposition was within the state itself.
The corresponding weakness of the officer corps was its conception of loyalty to the state and its aversion to mutiny. This explains the vacillations of Halder, who could never quite bring himself to take the decisive step.
Halder hated Hitler, and believed that the Nazis were leading Germany to catastrophe. He was shocked and disgusted by the behaviour of the SS in occupied Poland, but gave no support to his senior officer there, General Johannes Blaskowitz , when the latter officially protested to Hitler about the atrocities against the Poles and the Jews.
In and again in , he lost his nerve and could not give the order to strike against Hitler. This was even more true of Brauchitsch, who knew of the conspiracies and assured Halder that he agreed with their objectives, but would not take any action to support them.
The outbreak of war served to rally the German people around the Hitler regime, and the sweeping early successes of the German Army — occupying Poland in , Denmark and Norway in April , and swiftly defeating France in May and June , stilled virtually all opposition to the regime.
The opposition to Hitler within the Army was left isolated and apparently discredited, since the much-feared war with the western powers had apparently been won by Germany within a year and at little cost.
This mood continued well into , although beneath the surface popular discontent at mounting economic hardship was apparent.
In November , Georg Elser , a carpenter from Württemberg , developed a plan to assassinate Hitler completely on his own. Elser had been peripherally involved with the KPD before , but his exact motives for acting as he did remain a mystery.
He read in the newspapers that Hitler would be addressing a Nazi Party meeting on 8 November, in the Bürgerbräukeller , a beer hall in Munich where Hitler had launched the Beer Hall Putsch on the same date in Stealing explosives from his workplace, he built a powerful time bomb, and for over a month managed to stay inside the Bürgerbräukeller after hours each night, during which time he hollowed out the pillar behind the speaker's rostrum to place the bomb inside.
On the night of 7 November , Elser set the timer and left for the Swiss border. Unexpectedly, because of the pressure of wartime business, Hitler made a much shorter speech than usual and left the hall 13 minutes before the bomb went off, killing seven people.
Sixty-three people were injured, sixteen more were seriously injured with one dying later. Had Hitler still been speaking, the bomb almost certainly would have killed him.
This event set off a hunt for potential conspirators which intimidated the opposition and made further action more difficult.
Elser was arrested at the border, sent to the Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp, and then in moved to the Dachau concentration camp ; he was executed two weeks before the liberation of Dachau KZ.
The national-conservatives were strongly opposed to the Treaty of Versailles and tended to support the aims of Nazi foreign policy, at least when it came to challenging Versailles.
The sweeping success of Hitler's attack on France in May made the task of deposing him even more difficult. Most army officers, their fears of a war against the western powers apparently proven groundless, and gratified by Germany's revenge against France for the defeat of , reconciled themselves to Hitler's regime, choosing to ignore its darker side.
The task of leading the resistance groups for a time fell to civilians, although a hard core of military plotters remained active.
Carl Goerdeler , the former lord mayor of Leipzig , emerged as a key figure. Goerdeler was also in touch with the SPD underground, whose most prominent figure was Julius Leber , and with Christian opposition groups, both Catholic and Protestant.
These men saw themselves as the leaders of a post-Hitler government, but they had no clear conception of how to bring this about, except through assassinating Hitler — a step which many of them still opposed on ethical grounds.
Their plans could never surmount the fundamental problem of Hitler's overwhelming popularity among the German people.
They preoccupied themselves with philosophical debates and devising grand schemes for postwar Germany. The fact was that for nearly two years after the defeat of France, there was little scope for opposition activity.
In March , Hitler revealed his plans for a "war of annihilation" against the Soviet Union to selected army officers in a speech given in Posen.
In the audience was Colonel Henning von Tresckow , who had not been involved in any of the earlier plots but was already a firm opponent of the Nazi regime.
He was horrified by Hitler's plan to unleash a new and even more terrible war in the east. As a nephew of Field Marshal Fedor von Bock , he was very well connected.
Tresckow appealed unsuccessfully to Bock to not enforce the orders for the "war of annihilation". American journalist Howard K.
Smith wrote in that of the three groups in opposition to Hitler, the military was more important than the churches and the Communists.
In December , the United States entered the war, persuading some more realistic army officers that Germany must ultimately lose the war.
But the life-and-death struggle on the eastern front posed new problems for the resistance. Most of its members were conservatives who hated and feared communism and the Soviet Union.
The question of how the Nazi regime could be overthrown and the war ended without allowing the Soviets to gain control of Germany or the whole of Europe was made more acute when the Allies adopted their policy of demanding Germany's "unconditional surrender" at the Casablanca Conference of January During , the tireless Oster nevertheless succeeded in rebuilding an effective resistance network.
His most important recruit was General Friedrich Olbricht , head of the General Army Office headquartered at the Bendlerblock in central Berlin, who controlled an independent system of communications to reserve units all over Germany.
Linking this asset to Tresckow's resistance group in Army Group Centre created what appeared to a viable structure for a new effort at organising a coup.
Bock's dismissal did not weaken Tresckow's position. In fact he soon enticed Bock's successor, General Hans von Kluge , at least part-way to supporting the resistance cause.
Tresckow even brought Goerdeler, leader of the civilian resistance, to Army Group Centre to meet Kluge — an extremely dangerous tactic.
Conservatives like Goerdeler were opposed to the Treaty of Versailles and favored restoring the Reich back to the frontiers of together with keeping Austria.
Most of the conservatives favored the creation of an unified Europe led by Germany after the planned overthrow of Hitler.
The entry of the Soviet Union into the war had certain consequences for the civilian resistance. During the period of the Nazi—Soviet Pact , the KPD 's only objective inside Germany was to keep itself in existence: it engaged in no active resistance to the Nazi regime.
After June , however, all Communists were expected to throw themselves into resistance work, including sabotage and espionage where this was possible, regardless of risk.
A handful of Soviet agents, mostly exiled German Communists, were able to enter Germany to help the scattered underground KPD cells organise and take action.
This led to the formation in of two separate communist groups, usually erroneously lumped together under the name Rote Kapelle "Red Orchestra" , a codename given to these groups by the Gestapo.
This group made reports to the Soviet Union on German troop concentrations, air attacks on Germany, German aircraft production, and German fuel shipments.
In France, it worked with the underground French Communist Party. Agents of this group even managed to tap the phone lines of the Abwehr in Paris.
Trepper was eventually arrested and the group broken up by the spring of The second and more important "Red Orchestra" group was entirely separate and was a genuine German resistance group, not controlled by the NKVD the Soviet intelligence agency and predecessor to the KGB.
The group however contained people of various beliefs and affiliations. It thus conformed to the general pattern of German resistance groups of being drawn mainly from elite groups.
The main activity of the group was collecting information about Nazi atrocities and distributing leaflets against Hitler rather than espionage.
They passed what they had learned to foreign countries, through personal contacts with the U. When Soviet agents tried to enlist this group in their service, Schulze-Boysen and Harnack refused, since they wanted to maintain their political independence.
The group was revealed to the Gestapo in August by Johann Wenzel , a member of the Trepper group who also knew of the Schulze-Boysen group and who informed on them after being discovered and tortured for several weeks.
Schulze-Boysen, Harnack and other members of the group were arrested and secretly executed.
Meanwhile, another Communist resistance group was operating in Berlin, led by a Jewish electrician, Herbert Baum , and involving up to a hundred people.
Until , the group operated a study circle, but after the German attack on the Soviet Union a core group advanced to active resistance.
In May , the group staged an arson attack on an anti-Soviet propaganda display at the Lustgarten in central Berlin. The attack was poorly organised and most of the Baum group was arrested.
Twenty were sentenced to death, while Baum himself "died in custody". This fiasco ended overt Communist resistance activities, although the KPD underground continued to operate, and re-emerged from hiding in the last days of the war.
At the end of , Germany suffered a series of military defeats, the first at El Alamein , the second with the successful Allied landings in North Africa Operation Torch , and the third the disastrous defeat at Stalingrad , which ended any hope of defeating the Soviet Union.
Most experienced senior officers now came to the conclusion that Hitler was leading Germany to defeat, and that the result of this would be the Soviet conquest of Germany — the worst fate imaginable.
This gave the military resistance new impetus. Halder had been dismissed in and there was now no independent central leadership of the Army.
Tresckow and Goerdeler tried again to recruit the senior Army field commanders to support a seizure of power. Kluge was by now won over completely.
The prospect of a united German Army seizing power from Hitler was as far away as ever. Once again, however, neither officer reported that they had been approached in this way.
Nevertheless, the days when the military and civilian plotters could expect to escape detection were ending. He already suspected Canaris and his subordinates at the Abwehr.
On the civilian front, Dietrich Bonhoeffer was also arrested at this time, and Goerdeler was under suspicion. Under interrogation, Schmidhuber gave the Gestapo details of the Oster-Dohnanyi group in the Abwehr and about Goerdeler and Beck's involvement in opposition activities.
The Gestapo reported all this to Himmler, with the observation that Canaris must be protecting Oster and Dohnanyi and the recommendation that he be arrested.
Himmler passed the file back with the note "Kindly leave Canaris alone. Nevertheless, Oster's usefulness to the resistance was now greatly reduced.
However, the Gestapo did not have information about the full workings of the resistance. Most importantly, they did not know about the resistance networks based on Army Group Centre or the Bendlerblock.
Meanwhile, the disaster at Stalingrad, which cost Germany , casualties, was sending waves of horror and grief through German society, but causing remarkably little reduction in the people's faith in Hitler and in Germany's ultimate victory.
This was a source of great frustration to the military and civil service plotters, who virtually all came from the elite and had privileged access to information, giving them a much greater appreciation of the hopelessness of Germany's situation than was possessed by the German people.
In late , von Tresckow and Olbricht formulated a plan to assassinate Hitler and stage a coup. For such an occasion, von Tresckow had prepared three options: .
Von Tresckow asked Lieutenant Colonel Heinz Brandt , on Hitler's staff and usually on the same plane that carried Hitler, to take a parcel with him, supposedly the prize of a bet won by Tresckow's friend General Stieff.
It concealed a bomb, disguised in a box for two bottles of Cointreau. Von Tresckow's aide, Lieutenant Fabian von Schlabrendorff , set the fuse and handed over the parcel to Brandt who boarded the same plane as Hitler.
Hitler's Focke-Wulf Fw Condor was expected to explode about 30 minutes later near Minsk , close enough to the front to be attributed to Soviet fighters.
Olbricht was to use the resulting crisis to mobilise his Reserve Army network to seize power in Berlin, Vienna, Munich and in the German Wehrkreis centres.
It was an ambitious but credible plan, and might have worked if Hitler had indeed been killed, although persuading Army units to fight and overcome what could certainly have been fierce resistance from the SS could have been a major obstacle.
However, as with Elser's bomb in and all other attempts, luck favoured Hitler again, which was attributed to "Vorsehung" providence.
The British-made chemical pencil detonator on the bomb had been tested many times and was considered reliable. It went off, but the bomb did not.
The percussion cap apparently became too cold as the parcel was carried in the unheated cargo hold. Displaying great sangfroid , Schlabrendorff took the next plane to retrieve the package from Colonel Brandt before the content was discovered.
The blocks of plastic explosives were later used by Gersdorff and Stauffenberg. A second attempt was made a few days later on 21 March , when Hitler visited an exhibition of captured Soviet weaponry in Berlin's Zeughaus.
One of Tresckow's friends, Colonel Rudolf Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff , was scheduled to explain some exhibits, and volunteered to carry out a suicide bombing using the same bomb that had failed to go off on the plane, concealed on his person.
However, the only new chemical fuse he could obtain was a ten-minute one. Hitler again left prematurely after hurrying through the exhibition much quicker than the scheduled 30 minutes.
Gersdorff had to dash to a bathroom to defuse the bomb to save his life, and more importantly, prevent any suspicion.
Gersdorff reported about the attempt after the war; the footage is often seen on German TV documentaries "Die Nacht des Widerstands" etc. Axel von dem Bussche , member of the elite Infantry Regiment 9 , volunteered to kill Hitler with hand grenades in November during a presentation of new winter uniforms, but the train containing them was destroyed by Allied bombs in Berlin, and the event had to be postponed.
A second presentation scheduled for December at the Wolfsschanze was canceled on short notice as Hitler decided to travel to Berchtesgaden.
In January , Bussche volunteered for another assassination attempt, but then he lost a leg in Russia.
On February 11, another young officer, Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist tried to assassinate Hitler in the same way von dem Bussche had planned.
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Wikimedia Commons.Nach Überschreiten eines Schwellwertes für den Strom und damit auch für die Temperatur steigt der Widerstand in wenigen Sekunden so click at this page an, dass der Stromfluss fast völlig aufhört. Varistoren dienen Namen Flintstones ihrer Eigenschaften zur Spannungsregulation und damit zum Schutz empfindlicher Bauteile bzw. Toggle navigation. Das sind Xxlscore ErgebniГџe, welche vom Stromdurchfluss erwärmt werden bis ein Gleichgewicht zwischen zugeführter elektrischer Leistung und abgeführter Wärme entsteht. Bei Halbleitern ist die Kennlinie nicht linear. [1–3, 6–8] Wikipedia-Artikel „Widerstand“: [1, 3, 4, 6, 7] Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache „Widerstand“: [1–9] Uni Leipzig: Wortschatz. Aktiven Widerstand leistete in Mannheim eine Gruppe um den früheren badischen Vgl. oxway.codia. org/wiki/Landgericht_Stuttgart#Lechleitergruppe. Varistoren (VDR); Heißleiter (NTC); Kaltleiter (PTC); Lichtabhängiger Widerstand (LDR) Wikipedia hat einen Artikel zum Thema: Potentiometer. Wenn auch die Taten der "Schlurfs" nicht als politischer Widerstand im engeren Sinn einzuschätzen sind, gelang es manchen doch, Kräfte. Ausstellung Widerstand und Verfolgung - Bezirksmuseum Liesing, Widerstandskämpferinnen und Widerstandskämpfer im Wien Geschichte Wiki.